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ENHA-13

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*                                                                         *
*           ELECTRONIC NEWSLETTER FOR THE HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY            *
*                                                                         *
*      Published by the Working Group for the History of Astronomy        *
*                  in the Astronomische Gesellschaft                      *
*                                                                         *
*                    Number 13, February 15, 1996                         *
*                                                                         *
*                           A translation of                              *
*                                                                         *
*          ELEKTRONISCHE MITTEILUNGEN ZUR ASTRONOMIEGESCHICHTE            *
*                       Nr. 13,  29. Januar 1996                          *
*                                                                         *
*          Edited by: Dr. Wolfgang R. Dick <wdi@potsdam.ifag.de>          *
*                                                                         *
*      Translated by: Mr. Donald Bellunduno <76450.1741@CompuServe.COM>   *
*                                                                         *
***************************************************************************

Contents
--------

1. R. W. Home: Towards an International Bibliographical Database
               in the History of Science, Technology and Medicine

2. Educational tour "Astronomy in China"

3. Exhibit at Kansas City, MO, USA

4. Conference Calendar 1996

5. New books

6. Addendum by the translator: Space Calendar of events for 1996

Expressions of thanks

Imprint

...........................................................................

Editorial
---------

The electronic newsletter No. 13 has suffered from a technical problem at
the nearest Internet router at Berlin. EMA 13 had been finished on 22
December 1995 but could be distributed only on 29 January after the
installation of a new operating system at that router. Due to this
obstruction also the WWW pages for the history of astronomy at Bonn
(http://aibn55.astro.uni-bonn.de:8000/~pbrosche/astoria.html) could not
be updated for several weeks. Now these have been extended considerably.

Please note the new Copyright Statement in the imprint.

My best wishes for 1996 to all readers!

Wolfgang R. Dick

...........................................................................
Item 1                                            ENHA No. 13, Feb 15, 1996
...........................................................................

Towards an International Bibliographical Database in the History of
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Science, Technology and Medicine
--------------------------------

By R. W. Home, Parkville, Australia

A workshop on bibliographical tools in the history of science, technology
and medicine, sponsored by the Commission on Bibliography and Documentation
of the Division of History of Science, IUHPS, was held at Liege, Belgium,
on 25-26 September 1995. Hosted by Professor Robert Halleux,
Secretary-General of DHS and Head of the Centre d'Histoire des Sciences et
des Techniques, Universite de Liege, the meeting brought together the
compilers of a number of the leading bibliographies covering aspects of
current work in the history of science, technology and medicine that are
published on a serial basis throughout the world, and a number of
interested historians of science.  

At an earlier meeting held at Trento, Italy, in 1992, a proposal had been
advanced to make the information contained in these bibliographies more
widely available by developing a unified international bibliographical
database in electronic form. The present meeting was intended to advance
this project. Some of the most important existing bibliographies are
already available on-line, and the meeting saw impressive demonstrations of
the History of Science and Technology (HST) file maintained by the Research
Libraries Group (RLG) in the USA and made available through the Research
Libraries Information Network (RLIN) subscription service, and of the
on-line version of the Italian national bibliography of the history of
science, Bibliografia Italiana di Storia della Scienza (BISS).

The HST file includes the bibliographies of the history of science
published annually in Isis since 1976, and the bibliographies of the
history of technology published in Technology and Culture since 1987. The
electronic file has a variety of indexes that are not available in the
better-known paper versions, and may be searched by subject or title word
as well as alphabetical phrase listing. It thus constitutes an even more
valuable tool for the researcher. The meeting was told that an agreement
has recently been signed that will see the very large French database,
FRANCIS, that includes the bibliographies of the history of science
formerly published in the Bulletin signaletique series, mounted on RLIN.
Once this is done, RLG and INIST, the organization responsible for FRANCIS,
could explore the possibility of adding a copy of the history of science
segment to the existing HST file, thus very considerably enriching the
latter. In addition, negotiations are well advanced to add the BISS
database to the HST file, while also leaving it available free through the
Internet.

The meeting noted that several other bibliographies are produced regularly,
some on a national basis (e.g. Australia, Belgium, Spain), others covering
specific subject areas in the history of science (e.g. metrology,
oceanography, scientific instruments). There are also two major
bibliographies reporting current work in the history of medicine, the
Bibliography of the History of Medicine produced by the National Library of
Medicine in the USA and Current Work in the History of Medicine, produced
by the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine in the UK, both of
which were represented at the meeting. The former of these has long been
accessible electronically as part of the enormous medical database,
MEDLINE, and it has recently been decided that in future it will only be
accessible in that form. Two important listings unfortunately seem
recently to have ceased being produced, namely the bibliography of Russian
work in the history of science and technology that was published for many
years by the Institute for the History of Science and Technology in Moscow
and the very valuable bibliography of the history of natural history that
was produced for a number of years by the Natural History Museum in London.

The meeting was told that the future of the history of science segment of
FRANCIS was far from secure, and it was agreed that the Commission on
Bibliography and Documentation should make representations to the relevant
French authorities, urging upon them the importance of maintaining and even
strengthening the systematic bibliographical coverage of francophone work
in this field. It was also agreed that representations should be made to
the National Library of Medicine concerning the desirability of maintaining
a printed version of its bibliography of the history of medicine. It was
noted that at present, no bibliographies are being regularly produced
covering the work being done by several major national or regional groups
of historians of science and technology, including those in India, Latin
America and the Muslim world. The lack of systematic bibliographical
coverage of German-language publications was particularly striking.

The meeting considered at length the means by which the proposed database
might be made accessible to users. For individual compilers simply to put
their products "free to air" would be a recipe for chaos: active
management of the files, such as is provided for the HST data base on RLIN,
will become more and more necessary as more files are brought into the
scheme. This, however, generates costs which, in the case of RLIN, are
covered by the fees paid by institutional subscribers to the service. (The
fee payable currently varies from US$570 to $900 per annum for up to five
simultaneous users, or $1,480 to $2,610 for up to 25 simultaneous users,
depending on whether the subscribing institution is a member of RLG and on
whether the HST subscription is linked to RLG's RLIN Bibliographic
database.) These costs would have to be met in some way, however the
scheme were to be run. At the same time, it was agreed that it was
important to ensure that access to the scheme was not confined to the
privileged few but that it was open to all potential users. At present,
some sixty-one institutions, mostly universities through their libraries,
subscribe to the service and provide free access to users within that
institution. The possibility was noted of a consortium of libraries taking
out a combined subscription to RLIN's HST file, as had been done by a group
of eighteen university libraries in Ohio, and by a group of university
libraries in Australia, in each case substantially reducing the
subscription that had to be paid by individual participating libraries.
The RLG representative at the meeting, John Haeger, indicated that his
organization would also be prepared to explore other options that would
help reduce the cost to individual users.  

The meeting also considered some of the technical problems in maintaining
world-wide access to a database, especially in relation to the slowness
with which the system operated during busy periods (a problem that was all
too evident during the demonstration at the meeting of the RLIN system).
The possibility of establishing "mirror" sites on different continents was
aired but was discounted by John Haeger on behalf of RLG on the ground of
cost. He explained that RLG's preferred alternative was to establish
dedicated lines - as many as necessary - on routes such as the
transatlantic link where the open network was consistently overloaded and
slow; the HST file was, comparatively speaking, a very small segment of the
RLIN operation, but subscribers to it would automatically benefit from the
fact that RLG had recently entered into agreements with major European
libraries that would require it to maintain high-quality intercontinental
linkages.  

Following extensive discussion of the issues involved, the meeting agreed
to report to the Executive Committee of the Division of History of Science
the Commission's aim of creating a world bibliographical database of
current work in the history of science, technology and medicine, and to
recommend that the existing HST file on RLIN be used as the starting point
of the proposed database. The Commission supported the bibliographical
initiatives of RLG in the field of the history of science, technology and
medicine, and would endorse efforts by different European partners to
initiate or develop on-line bibliographical works in this field with the
support of the European Union. While noting that the choice as to whether
additional national or thematic bibliographies should seek to adhere to
RLIN was entirely at the discretion of their initiators, the Commission
would warmly encourage them to do so. 

European members of the Commission (from Belgium, France, Great Britain and
Italy) observed that, apart from the bibliographies produced by the
Wellcome Institute and the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza,
bibliographical work in the field of the history of science, technology and
medicine needed to be strengthened within the countries of the European
Union. In particular, it should be revived in France, improved in Belgium
and initiated in Germany. These partners agreed to put forward a project
to the European Union, seeking finance to set up a common database. This
partnership would initially involve Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and
Spain, and would subsequently incorporate the other countries of the Union.
The partnership would ultimately be enlarged to include Turkey, the Baltic
States, the Czech Republic and Hungary.

The meeting noted that a set of bibliographical guidelines needed to be
prepared for the proposed international database, that could be made
available to all national or other teams planning to elaborate a
bibliography with a view to having it incorporated in the international
database. A working group was appointed, comprising Anna Citernesi
(Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza), Henry Lowood (Stanford
University) and John Neu (University of Wisconsin), to define these
guidelines. It is envisaged that the working group will submit a
preliminary report in the Spring of 1996. Once the guidelines are agreed,
the Commission will make them available to all interested groups. Anyone
wishing to be sent a copy should contact Dr Lowood, joint secretary of the
Commission, at Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, CA 94305-6004, USA
(fax: (415) 725 1068. e-mail: henry.lowood@forsythe.stanford.edu).

Author's address:
R. W. Home
Department of History and Philosophy of Science
University of Melbourne
Parkville, Victoria 3052 
Australia
E-mail: Rod_Home@muwayf.unimelb.edu.au

Editor's note: Prof. R. W. Home is President of the Commission on
Bibliography and Documentation of the International Union of the History
and Philosophy of Science (IUHPS).

...........................................................................
Item 2                                            ENHA No. 13, Feb 15, 1996
...........................................................................

Educational tour "Astronomy in China"
-------------------------------------

This educational tour to China will undertake a deep understanding of
historical and modern astronomy in China. The tour will begin at the
historical observatories in Dengfeng and Beijing and will end at the
2m-Telescope in Xinglong. During talks with leading astronomers the
participants will get to know the actual research results of modern 
Chinese astronomy.
Schedule: 20 July -10 August 1996, price: c. DM 6600
Director of program: Eckehard Schmidt, Postfach 4616, D-90025 Nuernberg,
Germany, Tel. 0911-5865512 (Mon-Fri 8am-2pm), Fax 0911-5865549.
Information is free of charge.

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Item 3                                            ENHA No. 13, Feb 15, 1996
...........................................................................

Exhibit at Kansas City, MO, USA
-------------------------------

"Out of This World: The Golden Age of the Celestial Atlas" is an exhibit
running at the Linda Hall Library, Kansas City, MO, USA, from November 1,
1995, to February 1, 1996. The exhibit displays forty-three star atlases
and maps covering the period from 1482 to 1851. It includes all of the
famous atlases, such as those of Bayer, Schiller, Hevelius, Flamsteed, and
Bode, and well as many lesser known but highly appealing atlases. 
More information and an electronic catalog of this exhibition is available
on the World Wide Web at URL
http://www.lhl.lib.mo.us/pubserv/hos/stars/welcome.htm or from the Library
home page at http://www.lhl.lib.mo.us .
Comments, suggestions, or criticisms are welcome to:
William B. Ashworth, Jr.
Associate Professor, Dept. of History, University of Missouri--KC
Consultant, History of Science  Collection, Linda Hall Library,
5109 Cherry St., Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
E-mail: ashwortb@lhl.lib.mo.us, Voice-mail: (816) 926-8719,
Fax: (816) 926-8790

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Item 4                                            ENHA No. 13, Feb 15, 1996
...........................................................................

Conference Calendar 1996
------------------------

See also the previous issues for more events in 1996/97.

14-15 January 1996, San Antonio, TX, USA
187th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 
Historical Astronomy Division sessions:
Sunday, January 14, 1:00-5:00pm
Monday, January 15, 10:45am-12:15pm, 2:45-4:15pm
HAD will hold three sessions. On Sunday afternoon, "Applied History of
Astronomy" will explore the uses of historical documentation and analysis
for solving current problems in astronomy and astrophysics. This session
will include both invited and contributed papers. 
On Monday, two sessions will be devoted to contributed papers. Papers on
ancient astronomies and on recent or current astronomies of non-Western
cultures will be put in the morning session, "Astronomies and Cultures."
In the afternoon, "The Western Tradition" will cover the line of astronomy
from the Middle Ages to the present day; from Sacrobosco to the Space
Telescope, one might say.
For more information, contact Woody Sullivan at woody@astro.washington.edu
[Source: http://www.aas.org/meetings/aas187/prelim/had2.html]

22 January 1996, Berlin, Germany
10th Dahlem Archival talk. Prof. Dr. Dieter B. Herrmann: 100 years of the
Archenhold-Observatory
Place: Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft [Archive for the 
History of the Max Planck Society], Boltzmannstrasse 14,
14195 Berlin-Dahlem, near metro station Thielplatz.
Because of the limited number of available seats it is requested that those 
wishing to attend please register by telephone ahead of time: 
(030) 841 33 701, Mon-Fri 8am-4pm. 

6-9 March 1996, Potsdam, Germany
Conference of the Urania society of Potsdam "Bruno H. Buergel - Life and 
Works". Proceedings of the conference will be published.
In order to register: Urania-Verein "Wilhelm Foerster", Brandenburger Str.
38, D-14467 Potsdam, Germany, Tel. (0331) 291741, Fax (0331) 293683

16-19 May 1996, Oberschleissheim-Lustheim near Munich, Germany
25th Annual Conference of the Working Group for Sundials (Arbeitskreis 
Sonnenuhren)
Registery up until 31 January to: Guenther Berger, Nadistr. 18,
D-80809 Muenchen, Germany, Tel. and Fax (089) 351 12 03

8-9 June 1996, Holidays Observatory Calina, Switzerland
Colloqium "The History of Astronomy"
Information and registry: Hans Bodmer, Schlottenbueelstr. 9b, CH-8625
Gossau/ZH, Switzerland, Tel. (++01) 9361830 (in the evening)

7-11 August 1996, Budapest, Ungarn
Symposium of the International Committee for the History of Technology
Contacts: Hans-Joachim Braun, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg, 
D-22039 Hamburg, Tel. (040) 6541-2794, Fax (040) 6541-2762,
e-mail: HJ-BRAUN@unibw-hamburg.de

20-21 September 1996, Kremsmuenster, Austria
Annual Conference of the Working Group for Sundials in the Austrian
Astronomical Society (Arbeitsgruppe Sonnenuhren im Oesterreichischen
Astronomischen Verein)
Information: Dipl.Ing. Karl Schwarzinger, Am Tigls 76A, A-6073 Sistrans,
Austria, Tel. and Fax: 0512 / 37 88 68

12 October 1996, Berlin, Germany
100 years Archenhold Observatory. Celebrations beginning 11 am
Archenhold-Sternwarte, Alt-Treptow 1, D-12435 Berlin, Germany,
Tel. (030) 5348080, Fax (030) 5348083

...........................................................................
Item 5                                            ENHA No. 13, Feb 15, 1996
...........................................................................

New Books
---------

Boelling, Reinhard (Hrsg.): Das Fotoalbum fuer Weierstrass. A Photo Album
for Weierstrass. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn
Verlagsgesellschaft, 1994. XII, 116 pp., 29.7 x 21 cm, ISBN 3-528-06602-4,
hardbound DM 98.00
[2 photo albums, compiled by students, colleagues and friends of
Weierstrass who for his 70th birthday in 1885; it contains 340 portraits 
of mathematicians, astronomers and physicists]

Brosche, Peter: Astronomie der Goethezeit. Textsammlung aus Zeitschriften
und Briefen Franz Xaver von Zachs. [Astronomy during the time of Goethe.
Collection of texts from journals and letters of Franz Xaver von
Zach] Thun, Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Harri Deutsch, 1995. 230 pp., 
20 illus., ISBN 3-8171-3280-8, DM 38.00
(= Ostwalds Klassiker der exakten Wissenschaften, Bd. 280)                 

Clagett, Marshall: Ancient Egyptian science, vol. II: calendars, clocks
and astronomy. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1995, 
$ 50 (= Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 214) 
[Distribution: American Philosophical Society, P.O. Box 40098,
Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA, Fax: 215-440-3450]

Colwell, P.: Solving Kepler's equation over three centuries. Richmond,
VA: Willmann-Bell, 1993. Pp. 212, ISBN 0-943396-40-9, US$ 24.95

Fischer, Daniel; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.: Hubble: Ein neues Fenster zum All.
[Hubble: A New Window on the Universe] Basel: Birkhaeuser Verlag, 1995.
174 pp., c. 60 colour and 30 b/w illus., ISBN 3-7643-5201-9, hardbound
DM 68.00, SFr 58.00
[General portrayel of the Hubble Project and the scientific results, with a
short historical synopsis of Earth-based telescopes and the plans that went
into building the HST]

Florence, R.: The perfect machine. Building the Palomar telescope.
New York: Harper-Collins Publishers, 1994. Pp. 461, ISBN 0-06-018205-9,
US$ 27.50

Gehlhar, Fritz: Wie der Mensch seinen Kosmos schuf. Eine kleine
Kulturgeschichte der Astronomie [How Man built his cosmos. A short
cultural history of astronomy]. Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 1995.  
c. 200 pp., c. 60 illus., ISBN 3-7466-8018-2, paperback DM 14.90
(= Aufbau Taschenbuch, 8018)                                               

Hawlitschek, Kurt: Johann Faulhaber 1580 - 1635. Eine Bluetezeit der
mathematischen Wissenschaften in Ulm [A flowering time in the
mathematical sciences in Ulm]. Ulm, 1995. 336 pp., numerous illus.,
hardbound DM 29.80 (= Veroeffentl. der Stadtbibliothek Ulm, 18)
[also on Faulhabers scientific discussions with Johannes Kepler]

Kilmister, C.W.: Eddington's search for a fundamental theory. A key to the
Universe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Pp. 256,
ISBN 0-521-37165-1, GBP 35, $ 59.95 (hb)
   Review:  L.Mestel: The Observatory 115 (1995) 1128, 272-273

Krige, John; Russo, Arturo: Europe in space 1960 - 1973. Paris: European
Space Agency, 1994. Pp. 150, ISBN 92-9092-125-0, Dfl. 70.00

Leverington, David: A history of astronomy from 1890 to the present.
London, Berlin, Heidelberg et al.: Springer-Verlag, 1995. Pp. xii, 387,
ISBN 3-540-19915-2, DM 48.00 (pb)

Mercator, Gerhard: Atlas. Kosmographische Gedanken ueber die Erschaffung
der Welt und ihre kartographische Gestalt [Cosmographical thoughts on the
creation of the World and it's cartographical form]. W. Kruecken (Ed.).
Duisburg: Gert Wohlfahrth Verlag Fachtechnik, 1994. 240 pp.,
ISBN 3-87463-217-2, hardbound DM 34.00 (= Ed. Mercator)
[Reprint of Mercator's atlas of 1595, reprinted for the first time 
with complete foreword, translation, and thorough commentary]

Peterson, Ivars: Was Newton nicht wusste. Chaos im Sonnensystem.  
[What Newton didn't know. Chaos in the solar system] Basel: Birkhaeuser
Verlag, 1994. 347 pp., ISBN 3-7643-2978-5, DM 68.00
[Translation of Newton's clock: chaos in the solar system, 1994]

Zenkert, Arnold: Faszination Sonnenuhr [Fascination with sundials]. 
2nd, revised and enlarged edition. 
Thun, Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Harri Deutsch, 1995. 164 pp., 55 Photos, 
80 drawings, ISBN 3-8171-1386-2, hardbound c. DM 29.80
[also on the history of the sundial]

Zur Geschichte des Vermessungswesens. Vermessung in der Antike,
Historische Karten, Der Geodaet in der Literatur und bildenden Kunst,
Biographien, Basisvermessungen, Instrumentenbau, Grenzmale.
[On the history of surveying. Surveying in antiquity, historical maps, the
geodesist in literature and fine arts, biographies, base measurements,
instrument making, and boundary stones.]
Wiesbaden: Verlag Chmielorz GmbH, 1995. 123 pp., ISBN 3-87124-128-8 
(= VDV-Schriftenreihe, Bd. 8)
[The contributions are dedicated to Helmut Minow, the co-founder and
long-time director of the lecturing circle "History of Surveying"
(Gespraechskreis "Geschichte des Vermessungswesens") in the VDV (Verein
Deutscher Vermessungsingenieure = Society of German Surveyors), and of the
later special group (Fachgruppe) of the same name in the VDV. Contents:
among others:  M.A.Rappenglueck, Measuring with a line and a staff -
Lepinski Vir 7000 years ago; B.Zimmermann, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and
the East Prussian Arc Measurement; G.Opdenberg, Historical
surveying instruments. All texts in German.]

...........................................................................
Item 6                                            ENHA No. 13, Feb 15, 1996
...........................................................................

Addendum by the translator: Space Calendar of events for 1996
-------------------------------------------------------------

This Space Calendar covers space-related activities and anniversaries
for the upcoming year. It is also available on the World Wide Web at:

     http://newproducts.jpl.nasa.gov/calendar/

The WWW version of the Space Calendar includes links to other home pages
that have additional information on that subject.

This calendar is compiled and maintained by Ron Baalke. Please send any
updates or corrections to baalke@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov. Note that
anniversary dates are listed in 5 year increments only.

Non-historical items have been deleted from the original calendar.

                          =========================
                               SPACE CALENDAR
                          =========================

January 1996
  Jan 01 - 195th Anniversary (1801), Discovery of the First Asteroid 
           (Ceres) by Piazzi.
  Jan 15 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Helios-2 Launch (Solar Orbiter)
  Jan 24 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Voyager 2 Uranus Flyby
  Jan 28 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion
  Jan 31 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Apollo 14 Launch
  Jan 31 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Luna 9 Launch (Soviet Moon Lander)

February 1996
  Feb 04 - Clyde Tombaugh's 90th Birthday (1906)
  Feb 19 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Mir Space Station Launch (Soviet Union)

March 1996
  Mar 01 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Venera 3 Impact on Venus
  Mar 04 - 215th Anniversary (1781), Herschel's Discovery of Uranus
  Mar 06 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Vega 1, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 08 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Suisei, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 09 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Vega 2, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 11 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Sakigake, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 13 - 10th Anniversary (1986), Giotto, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 16 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 8 Launch
  Mar 28 - 10th Anniversary (1986), ICE, Comet Halley Flyby
  Mar 31 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Luna 10 Launch, 1st Moon Orbiter

April 1996
  Apr 12 - 35th Anniversary (1961), 1st Man in Space, Yuri Gagarin
  Apr 12 - 15th Annivesrary (1981), 1st Space Shuttle Launch, Columbia, 
           STS-1
  Apr 17 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Helios-2 Perihelion (.29 AU from Sun)
  Apr 19 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Salyut 1 Launch, 1st Space Station 
           (Soviet Union)
  
May 1996
  May 05 - 35th Anniversary (1961), 1st US Man in Space, Alan Shephard
  May 11 - 80th Anniversary (1916), Albert Einstein's General Theory of
           Relativity
  May 19 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mars 2 Launch (Soviet Mars Orbiter/
           Lander)
  May 25 - 35th Anniversary (1961), John F. Kennedy's Moon Goal Speech
  May 28 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mars 3 Launch (Soviet Mars Orbiter/
           Lander)
  May 30 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mariner 9 Launch (Mars Orbiter)
  May 30 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Surveyor 1 Launch (Moon Soft Lander)

June 1996
  Jun 03 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 9 Launch

July 1996
  Jul 18 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 10 Launch
  Jul 20 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Viking 1 Mars Landing
  Jul 21 - 35th Anniversary (1961), Mercury 4 Launch
  Jul 26 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Apollo 15 Launch

August 1996
  Aug 06 - 35th Anniversary (1961), Vostok 2 Launch
  Aug 09 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Luna 24 Launch (Soviet Moon Sample 
           Return)
  Aug 10 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Lunar Orbiter 1 Launch
  Aug 17 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Pioneer 7 Launch (Solar Orbiter)
  Aug 24 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Luna 11 Launch (Soviet Lunar Orbiter)
  Aug 25 - 15th Anniversary (1981), Voyager 2 Saturn Flyby

September 1996
  Sep 03 - 20th Anniversary (1976), Viking 2 Mars Landing
  Sep 12 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 11 Launch
  Sep 23 - 150th Anniversary (1846), J. Galle's Discovery of Neptune
  Sep 28 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Luna 19 Launch (Soviet Lunar Orbiter)

October 1996
  Oct 10 - 150th Anniversary (1846), William Lassell's Discovery of 
           Neptune's moon Triton
  Oct 22 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Luna 12 Launch (Soviet Lunar Orbiter)
  Oct 24 - 145th Anniversary (1851), William Lassell's Discovery of Uranus 
           moons Umbriel and Ariel
  Oct 25 - 325th Anniversary (1671), Giovanni Cassini's Discovery of 
           Saturn's moon Iapetus
  Oct 30 - 15th Anniversary (1981), Venera 13 Launch (Soviet Venus Lander)

November 1996
  Nov 04 - 15th Anniversary (1981), Venera 14 Launch (Venus Flyby/Lander)
  Nov 06 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Lunar Orbiter 2 Launch
  Nov 08 - Edmund Halley's 340th Birthday (1656)
  Nov 11 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Gemini 12 Launch
  Nov 14 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mariner 9 Mars Orbit Insertion
  Nov 27 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mars 2 Mars Orbit Insertion/Lander 
           Crash (Soviet Union)

December 1996
  Dec 02 - 25th Anniversary (1971), Mars 2 Mars Orbit Insertion/Mars 
           Landing
  Dec 14 - Tycho Brahe's 450th Birthday (1546)
  Dec 15 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Dollfus' Discovery of Saturn Moon Janus
  Dec 22 - 30th Anniversary (1966), Luna 13 Launch (Soviet Moon Lander)
  Dec 27 - Johannes Kepler's 425th Birthday (1571)

..........................................................................

Expressions of thanks
---------------------

In addition to the authors of contributions, we also wish to thank: 

William B. Ashworth (Kansas City), Guenther Berger (Munich), Peter
Brosche (Daun), Hilmar Duerbeck (Muenster), Eckehard Schmidt (Nuremberg),
Karl Schwarzinger (Sistrans), Giancarlo Truffa (Milan).

...........................................................................

Imprint
-------

Electronic Newsletter for the History of Astronomy (ENHA)

Published by the Working Group for the History of Astronomy in the
Astronomische Gesellschaft

A translation of "Elektronische Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte"

Editor: Dr. Wolfgang R. Dick <wdi@potsdam.ifag.de>

Translated by: Mr. Donald Bellunduno <76450.1741@compuserve.com>

All items without an author's name are editorial contributions.
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